Demonstrate communication skills in training
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||Think, pair and share||PPT|
||First session reflection and closing|
Communication is the main skill for someone to become a trainer. There are several things that need to be understood including the meaning and purpose of communication and Principles of Proper or Effective Communication. So is the case for the trainer of Contingency Plan Development Scenarios using OpenStreetMap (OSM) and QGIS / InaSAFE.
Communication in everyday life plays a very important part, this is because communication has the function to connect a person’s wishes to others. Specifically, communication runs four functions, i.e. the function of control, motivation, emotional expression and information.
Communication is generally defined as the process of creating the meaning of ideas or ideas presented. The trainer’s interests in training will naturally require effective communication, used as a mean to convey ideas and motivate someone to do something in accordance with the purpose of the training. The ideas will be presented in this training are all about disaster, in particular the Contingency Plan Development Scenarios using OpenStreetMap (OSM) and QGIS / InaSAFE. Related to this, the trainer has to have the basic skills in teaching or training because training is basically teaching the participants to be able to do something.
Communication is generally defined as the process of creating the meaning of ideas or ideas presented. In this case communication requires at least 4 components or elements, i.e. (1) The sender or messenger/ communicator, (2) the message, (3) the recipient of the message/ communicant, (4) Media/ channel. In effective communication process, communicator and communicant not only performed linear communication, but also expected to performed circular communication.
Linear communication model is a process that consists of two straight lines, where the communication process starts from the communicator and ends at the communicant. The circular model of communication, on the other hand, is a communication process that not only starts from the communicator and ends at the communicant, but also pays attention to the feedback from the communicant, making the model a full circle process. This means that the trainer can be the source of information at one time and the recipient at another time, vice versa. Participants can be the recipient of information but also the source of information. So communication is a simultaneous notice or exchange.
The communication process indicates that the trainee can act both as the recipient of information/ message and the source of information/ message. But the trainer as the actor in the process of communication still has to control the training process. Therefore the trainer remains as the communicator, as communicator plays a very important part especially in controlling the course of communication, so that the message is well received by the recipient (communicant) or the participants. This is in accordance with the function of communication.
The function of communication according to Gordon I Zinmmerman in Thomas M. Scheidel (1976) is a function of the content, which involves the exchange of information we need to complete our task, and the function of relationship, which involves the exchange of information about how our relationship is with others. While the function of communication according to Thomas M. Scheidel (1976) is: “We communicate primarily to represent and support self-identity, to establish social contact, to influence others to feel, think and act as we want.
The two opinions above indicate that the purpose of communication is for the recipient to understand and comprehend the message conveyed by the messenger. Trainers are expected to explain the wish or the idea according to the purpose of the training to the participants with a simple but precise or accurate way. Here communication process is expected to pay attention to the feedback from the participants.
Communication is the message conveyed to the communicant (recipient) by the communicator (source) through certain channels either directly/ indirectly for the purpose of giving impact/ effect to the communicant as desired by the communicator. It goes through 5 stages, i.e. (1) Interpretation, (2) Encryption, (3) Delivery, (4) Acceptance, and (5) Feedback. To achieve the objective of communication, the principles of effective communication are also required. To have a smooth communication, it is necessary to use the principle of effective communication. Principles include Respect, Empathy, Audible, Clarity, and Humble.
Respect is the positive feeling or respect for the listener. Everyone wants to be appreciated and respected and it has become the need of each individual. For that reason, the trainer is expected to respect the other person, or in this case the trainees.
Empathy is the ability to put yourself in situations or conditions faced by others. Communication will be well established in accordance with good psychological condition of our counterpart. To empathize means that the trainer has to put himself as a good listener, even before anyone else listens to him. And he must be able to feel what is perceived by the trainees.
Clarity is the clarity of the messages we convey. On this principle the trainer has set clear objectives before the training and uses a good tone of voice.
Humility gives positive prestige for the communicator. In this case, humble is done by giving participants a chance to speak first and the trainer being a good listener. This attitude builds respect and eventually develops respect for the participants.
Communication in training is a process of delivering communication conditioned for training purposes. The training process is essentially a communication process delivering messages containing training materials. In this regard the training is expected to use a circular model of communication, which is a process that not only starts from the communicator and ends at communicant, but also pays attention to the feedbacks from the communicant, to make the communication effective.
Effective communication in training is expected to use verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication is communication using verbal symbols/ words verbally. Non-verbal communication is the kind of communication not using verbal words, but gestures, body language, facial expressions, and eye contact. It could also be done with the use of objects such as clothes, haircuts and so forth.
Non-verbal communication will help the trainer to become an interesting speaker. Verbal communication has to be supported by means of talking such as intonation, giving emphasis, sound quality, style of speech and emotion. It also uses gestures, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, and supported by the use of objects such as clothes, haircuts, and so forth.
Training is essentially a learning process that contains three elements, i.e. inputs (raw materials to be processed), process (activity to process inputs) and outputs (results that have been processed). Input of the training is the participants before starting the training, the training process is the interaction between the components of teaching and learning which are the objectives, materials, methods, participants, facilities and assessment. The output of the training is the participants after finishing the training.
A process is considered good if the output quality is better than the input. The learning process or training is a behavioral change, which occurs as the result of experience. This means it can only be called as a learning process if a person is showing different behavior. He needs to prove the new knowledge of facts, or do something which he couldn’t previously. Thus, the learning process puts someone from one capability or competence status to the other.
Communication model training is one component in the training process because it is actually a method implementation in training. To maximize output in the training, a trainer has to select a training method in accordance with the other components, such as the objectives, materials, trainees, facilities and assessment. So to be able to achieve the objectives set in the training, methods of training and communication should receive special attention in any training process.
A good trainer should understand the characteristics of participants in order for him to succeed in carrying out his teaching role. A trainer is expected to plan the learning process according to the circumstances and the personality of the trainees. A method is a way to achieve the objectives well. The methods can be classified into 5, i.e. direct learning, indirect learning, interactive learning, experiential learning, and independent learning.
a. Methods in direct learning
Direct learning is usually identified with the lecture method, where learning is presumably making the participants less active. However, direct learning can still be used together with question and answer, demonstrations, and exercises. Furthermore, a few ways can be used to make more this method more effective, for example:
Various methods can be developed when students receive an explanation from the teacher, among others:
The method can be developed after the participants received proper explanation from the trainer, among others:
Methods to determine participants’ mastery of the concepts that have been studied
b. Indirect learning method
c. Interactive learning method
d. Experiential learning method
e. Independent learning
Project: Project method is a way of presenting the lessons, starting from a problem where the solution requires a review of various point of views. The rationale for the use of this method is that the problem can only be solved by different school of thoughts or knowledge. Only problems that need unit problem solving can be solved with project method.
In interaction or face-to-face meeting with the trainees, trainer requires some basic teaching skills. It is absolutely necessary to help the trainer in playing the role in educational interaction. The trainer’s teaching basic skills are not different than the teachers who teach in the classroom. Those basic skills are:
a. Skill to open and close the session
Definition and Purpose
Opening a session is associated with the trainer creating conducive mental atmosphere and attracting participants’ attention to focus on what will be studied. While closing the session is when the trainer ending the core of the activities, which is giving an overall picture of what has been studied, knowing the participants, and the trainer’s rate of success in the training process. Opening and closing of the session have are meant to:
Components of Opening the Session Skill
Opening a session can be done by:
Attracting participants’ interest
A few ways can be done by the trainer to attract the participants’ interest, among others:
Creating motivation can be done by:
Giving references is an effort to give clear picture of the things that will be studied by means of inserting a short series of specific and relevant alternatives, by:
Some of the trainer’s efforts in making connections:
Basic Skills Components of Closing the Session
Closing the session is intended to obtain a complete picture at the end of the activity, and to determine the participants’ level of achievement or the participants’ success rate. There are a few ways to that can be done in closing the session, among others:
A few principles that need to be considered by a trainer when opening and closing the session are:
b. Explanation skill
Explaining/ describing something is presenting verbal information that is organized systematically to show an association with one another. The emphasis of explaining is the participants’ reasoning process and not indoctrination. Examples: providing an overview of a situation, revealing causes of an event, etc. The success of explaining is marked by the participants’ understanding of something. The structure of teaching materials in explaining is usually planned in a way that can be controlled. Logical description, the skill to reveal the materials and the strategy to organize the materials are the main procedure to explain.
Explaining is linked with the effort to create linkages between the known and the unknown. A full explanation is always accompanied by evidence and the cause and effect is based on the logical relationships between generalization, provisions, and realities according to the participants’ perception system.
The objective of explanation skills are to:
Components of Explanation Skills
In the planning process, the components of explanation skills include:
In planning explanation, we need to pay attention to the contents of the message that will be conveyed and the readiness of the recipient. Things related to the content of the message (the material) including:
What we need to pay attention when associated with the message recipient (participant) is to whom the explanation will be presented to, such as age, gender, ability, social background, and participants’ learning environment. Thus what needs to be considered in connection with the recipient of this message is:
A few things to notice in presenting an explanation are:
c. Inquiry basic skill
Definition and Purpose
Asking a question can be interpreted as a greeting delivered with the intention of requesting a response from others. In the teaching process, the given response reflects the extent to which level of knowledge the participants have. So asking questions in the session is important because the trainer’s skill in asking effective questions will be the stimulus that will stimulate thinking skills and will encourage participants.
The purpose of asking includes:
Components of Inquiry Basic Skill
Components included in the inquiry basic skill are:
For certain purposes the coach can throw the question to the whole class, to a participant or spread from one participant to the others.
Provision of time to think
In asking question, a trainer has to stay silent a moment before appointing a participant to answer the questions
Provision of guidance
For participants having difficulty in answering the question, a strategy to provide guidance needs to be given. The strategy includes the disclosure of the question with other form or manner, asking other simpler questions, and repeats the previous explanations.
Advance level skills, components added:
d. Skills to provide reinforcement
Definition and Purpose
There are two kinds of reinforcements, positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is the trainer’s behavior in responding positively to a particular behavior of participants that allows such behavior to reoccur. While negative reinforcement is the removal or a reduction of unpleasant stimuli to encourage the reoccurrence of the behavior that arises as the result of the reduction or removal.
The purpose of reinforcement is to:
Reinforcement is given during:
Components of Reinforcement Basic Skills
The use of in-class skill components should be carefully selected, tailored to the participants’ ages, capability level, needs and background, the purpose and nature of the task. Reinforcement must be meaningful from the participants.
Some components of providing reinforcement are:
Reinforcement can be verbal words that are spoken by the teacher. Examples of it are good, well, precise, I appreciate the income, very intelligent mind, etc.
This reinforcement is given in the form of gestures, facial or limb movements that can give the impression to the students. For example: Lifting an eyebrow, smiling, leering eyes, applause, nodding in agreement, raising the thumb sign, etc.
This reinforcement is done by approaching students to express the trainer’s concern for the work, behavior or appearance of the participants. For example: the trainer sits in a group, stands next to a participant. Often the trainer approaches participants to give them verbal reinforcement.
Reinforcement through touches
A trainer can express appreciation to the participants by patting them, shaking their hands or raising their hands.
Reinforcement by providing fun activities
This reinforcement may be in the form of asking participants to help his friends when he has finished his work properly, participants are asked to lead activities, etc.
Symbolic reinforcement or with objects
This form of reinforcement is the trainer’s effort in using a variety of symbols to support the reinforcement of positive behavior of participants. This form of reinforcement include commentary written in the work book, giving stamps, money data collection, star, percentage and so on.
The way this is done is the same with positive reinforcement, except that it is not pleasant for the participants in order to reduce or remove their actions.
How to use the components:
e. Basic skills in Using Variations
Definition and Purpose
Using variations is defined as the trainer’s effort in in the context of the training process that aims to overcome the participants’ boredom in following the training, so that participants always show perseverance, as well as enthusiasm and active participation.
Use in class is for:
Components of Making Variations Skill
Variation in training style
Variety of trainer’s teaching styles include these components:
Variations in the use of media and teaching materials
Variations in any type of media or variations between media type need to be considered in the learning process
Variations of interaction pattern and participant’s activity
The range of interaction can move between the two extreme poles, the trainer as the center of activities and participants as the center of activities. Changes in the interaction between the two poles will result in an activity pattern that is experienced by the participants. From the description above, it is clear that the skills in using variations are wider compared with the skill of providing reinforcement and inquiry skills.
The principles that need to be understood
The principles which will need the use of natural variation among others are:
f. Classroom Management Skills
Classroom management is the creation of conditions that enable the training management to take place optimally. This is in contrast to the management of learning, i.e. the teaching itself involving the material components, methods, and training aids in achieving the learning objectives.
Examples of learning management problems are unclear learning objectives, the subject matter is too easy or too hard, medium or inappropriate learning methods, the materials are not in systematic order, etc. While examples of classroom management problems are sleepy participants, crowded classroom, participants not doing the tasks, participants teasing others, broken seats, dirty classroom, etc.
Managing a class is a function of the trainer as a manager. Management means the organization or management in order for things to run smoothly, effectively, and efficiently. So in this case the function of a trainer is as a manager or an organizer. While the purpose of managing the class is: (1) to create and maintain an optimal learning condition, (2) to restore in the event of disruption to the learning process
Classroom Management Approaches
Various classroom management approaches are:
Behavior Modification Approach
Behavior modification approach departs from behavior psychology with the basic assumption that human behavior either good or bad, to a certain extent, is the result of learning process. Thus, human behavior can be modified.
Modifications include using positive reinforcement techniques, negative reinforcement, deletion, and punishment. Positive reinforcement is a response to a behavior, which can increase the likelihood of reoccurrence of such behavior. Negative reinforcement is a reduction to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus to encourage the recurrence of a behavior that arises as a result of the reduction or removal.
Principle of use:
Social Climate Approach (Social-Emotional Climate)
Social-emotional climate approach departs from clinical psychology and counseling, with the basic assumption that the teaching and learning activities are effective and efficient when there are social-emotional relationships between participants and trainers and between participants. This can be pursued by means of:
Group Process Approach
Group process approach departs from social psychology and group dynamics, with the basic assumption that the effective and efficient teaching and learning activities take place in the context of a group, i.e. the class. For that task the trainer has to create a class that has strong ties and can work effectively and efficiently.
To create a good group bonding atmosphere we need the establishment of common goals in the group, clear rules to bind the participants into groups, and leadership within the group. And to maintain a healthy working environment, the trainer needs to do for example: